Primary hypertension is more common in people who are overweight or obese and in people with high blood pressure in their family.
Exposure to arsenic through drinking water has been shown to correlate with elevated blood pressure. Most people with high blood pressure are “salt sensitive,” meaning that something other than the minimum body requirement for salt is too much for them and raises their blood pressure. Other factors that may increase the risk of essential hypertension include obesity; diabetes; stress; insufficient intake of potassium, calcium and magnesium; lack of physical activity; and chronic alcohol consumption. Beta-blocker relax blood vessels and lower heart rate to improve blood flow and lower blood pressure. Calcium channel blockers affect the blood vessels so that the heart does not have to pump as hard. Alpha-adrenergic blockers of peripheral action relax blood vessels, so that blood can flow more easily through the body.
This condition of elevated blood pressure can cause kidney and other organ complications. This can lead to high levels of protein in the urine, problems with liver function, fluid in the lungs or visual problems. If you live with obesity, maintaining moderate weight with a heart-healthy diet and increased physical activity can help lower your blood pressure. Options may change over time depending on the severity of hypertension and if complications occur, such as kidney disease. A 2021 study notes that while death rates from cardiovascular disease have declined in older adults, the reduction has been less dramatic in people ages 18 to 39. The author suggests that there are lower rates of awareness, treatment and management of high blood pressure in people aged 20 to 39 years.
The second, or lower number, measures the strength of the blood in the arteries as the heart relaxes between beats. The bottom number is the lower of the two and is called diastolic pressure. The modern understanding of the cardiovascular system began with the work of physician William Harvey (1578-1657), who described blood circulation in his book “De motu cordis”. The English clergyman Stephen Hales made the first published measurement of blood pressure in 1733. However, hypertension as a clinical entity became its own with the invention of the cuff-based blood pressure monitor by Scipione Riva-Rocci in 1896. In 1905, Nikolai Korotkoff improved the technique by describing the Korotkoff sounds heard when the artery is ausculated with a stethoscope while the blood pressure monitor cuff deflates.
The right blood pressure measurement technique involves several steps. A good blood pressure reading requires the person whose blood pressure is being measured to sit quietly for at least five minutes, after which a well-adjusted blood pressure cuff is applied to the upper bare arm. The person should sit with his back rested, his feet resting on the ground and with his legs uncrossed.
Your doctor may also use a device called an ophthalmoscope to look at the blood vessels in your eyes. Doctors can tell if these blood vessels are thickened, narrowed or cracked, which can be a sign of high blood pressure. Your doctor will also use a stethoscope to listen to your heart and the sound of blood flowing through your arteries. In some cases, a chest X-ray and an electrocardiogram may be required.
These include eating well, getting the right amount of exercise, and controlling your salt intake. The top number is systolic blood pressure, which measures the pressure on the walls of hoge bloeddruk verlagen blood vessels when the heart beats or contracts. The bottom number is diastolic blood pressure, which measures the pressure on the blood vessels between beats when the heart relaxes.
Women who take birth control pills have an increased risk of developing high blood pressure. It’s more common when women are overweight, have had high blood pressure during a previous pregnancy, have a family history of blood pressure, smoke or have mild kidney disease, according to the AHA. Dietary changes that have been shown to lower blood pressure include low-sodium diets, the DASH diet, and plant-based diets.