With the increasing use of medicinal cannabis, an understanding of the landscape of available evidence synthesis is needed to inform evidence-based decision-making, policy development and to inform a research agenda. In this scope review, we identified 72 systematic reviews that evaluated medical cannabis for a variety of conditions and diseases. Half of the reviews were rated as of poor quality and only one review scored high on the AMSTAR-2 review tool.
Older adults use medical marijuana for dozens of other health problems, including migraines, fibromyalgia, symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease and dementia, Parkinson’s disease, Crohn’s disease and glaucoma. Medical marijuana reduced the frequency and intensity of migraines in one study. A study of 2,700 elderly patients in Israel gave cannabis high marks for reducing pain and improving quality of life for people with Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, Crohn’s and ulcerative colitis. Much more research and anecdotal weight is needed before there are definitive answers about these applications. The data clearly indicates that between a quarter and half of teens who use recreational marijuana develop an addiction, which is particularly alarming because the brain is still developing until about age 21. Therefore, marijuana can have a significant impact on alertness, self-awareness, memory, and executive function in these individuals.
Most studies showed improvements in participants who took the cannabinoid products over those who took placebo, but in many, the scientists admitted that they couldn’t be sure that the effect wasn’t just due to chance, because the association wasn’t statistically significant. The efficacy of cannabis is unclear in treating neurological problems, including multiple sclerosis and movement problems. There is also evidence that oral cannabis Massachusetts marijuana doctors extract is effective in reducing patient-centered measures of spasticity. A cannabis study is considered a reasonable option if other treatments have not been effective. In the United States, cannabidiol, one of the cannabinoids in the marijuana plant, is approved for the treatment of two severe forms of epilepsy, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome. Reviews focused on the treatment of a related condition or family of conditions.
There is evidence that cannabis-based medicines have a therapeutic effect in specific clinical situations and that recreational cannabis use can have some negative health outcomes. The report finds large knowledge gaps in understanding the health effects of both recreational cannabis and cannabis-based medicines, particularly in specific populations, and this lack of knowledge poses a risk to public health. “The greatest body of evidence for the therapeutic effects of cannabis relates to its ability to reduce chronic pain, nausea and vomiting due to chemotherapy and MS spasticity,” bonn-miller says. This graph shows how doctors expect cannabis to improve, worsen, or have no effect on PD-related symptoms, given their experience and observations of people with PD. The study emphasized that doctors would be more likely to use medical marijuana as a treatment if it were passed by regulation rather than legislation. Almost all drugs are approved only after passing a science-based evaluation that demonstrates their effectiveness in a process overseen by the Food and Drug Administration.
The potential benefit of cannabinoid use has been the source of many conjectures within the neurology literature. Of the moderate/high quality assessments, adverse event analyses were reported in the reviews on pain, multiple sclerosis, cancer, HIV/AIDS, movement disorders, rheumatic diseases and various other conditions. Two reviews on pain showed fewer side effects with cannabis for euphoria, events related to changes in perception, motor function and cognitive function, withdrawal due to side effects, sleep and dizziness or dizziness. Within the cancer reviews, one review found no statistically significant difference between cannabis and placebo for dysphoria or sedation, but reported fewer events with placebo for ‘feeling high’ and fewer events with cannabis for withdrawal due to side effects.
Proponents of medical cannabis support its use for a wide range of medical conditions, especially in the areas of pain management and multiple sclerosis. Marijuana can be consumed by patients in a variety of ways, including smoking, vaporizing, ingesting, or administering sublingually or rectally. The plant consists of more than 100 known cannabinoids, of which tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol are the most important that are relevant for medical applications. Synthetic forms of marijuana such as dronabinol and nabilone are also available as recipes in the United States and Canada. My father was diagnosed with emphysema a long time ago, and at night, when he tried to sleep, he had trouble breathing.
A review that included studies of MS or spinal cord injury found no difference in pain between groups. For injury treatment, one review showed that the placebo group had less pain, and one review reported data per study. The strongest studies supported cannabinoids’ ability to relieve chronic pain, while the less reliable evidence covered things like nausea and vomiting from chemotherapy, sleep disorders, and Tourette’s syndrome. However, cannabinoids were linked to more side effects such as nausea, vomiting, dizziness, disorientation and hallucinations than placebo. Smoking has been the drug of cannabis administration for many users, but it is not suitable for the use of cannabis as a medicine.
We included systematic reviews in English if they reported investigating the harms and/or benefits of medical or therapeutic use of cannabis for adults and children for any indication. We also include synthetic cannabis products, which are prescription drugs with specific doses of THC and CBD. Reviews of observational designs only were included with respect to adverse event data, to focus on the strongest evidence available. We rated studies as systematic reviews if we searched at least one database of reported search data, reported at least one eligibility criterion, assessed the quality of recorded studies, and had a narrative or quantitative synthesis of the evidence. We included reviews that evaluated multiple interventions (both pharmacological and complementary and alternative medicine interventions) if data from marijuana studies were reported separately. We have included published and unpublished guidelines when a systematic review of the criteria mentioned above was conducted.